好库网
/*
 * Copyright (c) 2011 Kevin Sawicki <kevinsawicki@链接已屏蔽>
 *
 * Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy
 * of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to
 * deal in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the
 * rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or
 * sell copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is
 * furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:
 *
 * The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in
 * all copies or substantial portions of the Software.
 *
 * THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR
 * IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY,
 * FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE
 * AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER
 * LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING
 * FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS
 * IN THE SOFTWARE.
 */
package com.yixia.zi.utils;

import static 链接已屏蔽.HttpURLConnection.HTTP_BAD_REQUEST;
import static 链接已屏蔽.HttpURLConnection.HTTP_CREATED;
import static 链接已屏蔽.HttpURLConnection.HTTP_INTERNAL_ERROR;
import static 链接已屏蔽.HttpURLConnection.HTTP_NOT_FOUND;
import static 链接已屏蔽.HttpURLConnection.HTTP_NOT_MODIFIED;
import static 链接已屏蔽.HttpURLConnection.HTTP_OK;

import java.io.BufferedInputStream;
import java.io.BufferedOutputStream;
import java.io.BufferedReader;
import java.io.ByteArrayInputStream;
import java.io.ByteArrayOutputStream;
import java.io.Closeable;
import java.io.File;
import java.io.FileInputStream;
import java.io.FileNotFoundException;
import java.io.FileOutputStream;
import java.io.Flushable;
import java.io.IOException;
import java.io.InputStream;
import java.io.InputStreamReader;
import java.io.OutputStream;
import java.io.OutputStreamWriter;
import java.io.PrintStream;
import java.io.Reader;
import java.io.UnsupportedEncodingException;
import java.io.Writer;
import 链接已屏蔽.HttpURLConnection;
import 链接已屏蔽.URI;
import 链接已屏蔽.URISyntaxException;
import 链接已屏蔽.URL;
import 链接已屏蔽.URLEncoder;
import java.nio.ByteBuffer;
import java.nio.CharBuffer;
import java.nio.charset.Charset;
import java.nio.charset.CharsetEncoder;
import java.security.AccessController;
import java.security.GeneralSecurityException;
import java.security.PrivilegedAction;
import java.security.SecureRandom;
import java.security.cert.X509Certificate;
import java.util.Collections;
import java.util.Iterator;
import java.util.LinkedHashMap;
import java.util.List;
import java.util.Map;
import java.util.Map.Entry;
import java.util.concurrent.Callable;
import java.util.concurrent.atomic.AtomicInteger;
import java.util.zip.GZIPInputStream;

import 链接已屏蔽.ssl.HostnameVerifier;
import 链接已屏蔽.ssl.HttpsURLConnection;
import 链接已屏蔽.ssl.SSLContext;
import 链接已屏蔽.ssl.SSLSession;
import 链接已屏蔽.ssl.SSLSocketFactory;
import 链接已屏蔽.ssl.TrustManager;
import 链接已屏蔽.ssl.X509TrustManager;

/**
 * A fluid interface for making HTTP requests using an underlying
 * {@link HttpURLConnection} (or sub-class).
 * <p>
 * Each instance supports making a single request and cannot be reused for
 * further requests.
 */
public class HttpRequest {

  /**
   * 'UTF-8' charset name
   */
  public static final String CHARSET_UTF8 = "UTF-8";

  /**
   * 'application/x-www-form-urlencoded' content type header value
   */
  public static final String CONTENT_TYPE_FORM = "application/x-www-form-urlencoded";

  /**
   * 'application/json' content type header value
   */
  public static final String CONTENT_TYPE_JSON = "application/json";

  /**
   * 'gzip' encoding header value
   */
  public static final String ENCODING_GZIP = "gzip";

  /**
   * 'Accept' header name
   */
  public static final String HEADER_ACCEPT = "Accept";

  /**
   * 'Accept-Charset' header name
   */
  public static final String HEADER_ACCEPT_CHARSET = "Accept-Charset";

  /**
   * 'Accept-Encoding' header name
   */
  public static final String HEADER_ACCEPT_ENCODING = "Accept-Encoding";

  /**
   * 'Authorization' header name
   */
  public static final String HEADER_AUTHORIZATION = "Authorization";

  /**
   * 'Cache-Control' header name
   */
  public static final String HEADER_CACHE_CONTROL = "Cache-Control";

  /**
   * 'Content-Encoding' header name
   */
  public static final String HEADER_CONTENT_ENCODING = "Content-Encoding";

  /**
   * 'Content-Length' header name
   */
  public static final String HEADER_CONTENT_LENGTH = "Content-Length";

  /**
   * 'Content-Type' header name
   */
  public static final String HEADER_CONTENT_TYPE = "Content-Type";

  /**
   * 'Date' header name
   */
  public static final String HEADER_DATE = "Date";

  /**
   * 'ETag' header name
   */
  public static final String HEADER_ETAG = "ETag";

  /**
   * 'Expires' header name
   */
  public static final String HEADER_EXPIRES = "Expires";

  /**
   * 'If-None-Match' header name
   */
  public static final String HEADER_IF_NONE_MATCH = "If-None-Match";

  /**
   * 'Last-Modified' header name
   */
  public static final String HEADER_LAST_MODIFIED = "Last-Modified";

  /**
   * 'Location' header name
   */
  public static final String HEADER_LOCATION = "Location";

  /**
   * 'Server' header name
   */
  public static final String HEADER_SERVER = "Server";

  /**
   * 'User-Agent' header name
   */
  public static final String HEADER_USER_AGENT = "User-Agent";

  /**
   * 'DELETE' request method
   */
  public static final String METHOD_DELETE = "DELETE";

  /**
   * 'GET' request method
   */
  public static final String METHOD_GET = "GET";

  /**
   * 'HEAD' request method
   */
  public static final String METHOD_HEAD = "HEAD";

  /**
   * 'OPTIONS' options method
   */
  public static final String METHOD_OPTIONS = "OPTIONS";

  /**
   * 'POST' request method
   */
  public static final String METHOD_POST = "POST";

  /**
   * 'PUT' request method
   */
  public static final String METHOD_PUT = "PUT";

  /**
   * 'TRACE' request method
   */
  public static final String METHOD_TRACE = "TRACE";

  /**
   * 'charset' header value parameter
   */
  public static final String PARAM_CHARSET = "charset";

  private static final String BOUNDARY = "00content0boundary00";

  private static final String CONTENT_TYPE_MULTIPART = "multipart/form-data; boundary="
      + BOUNDARY;

  private static final String CRLF = "\r\n";

  private static final String[] EMPTY_STRINGS = new String[0];

  private static SSLSocketFactory TRUSTED_FACTORY;

  private static HostnameVerifier TRUSTED_VERIFIER;

  private static String getValidCharset(final String charset) {
    if (charset != null && charset.length() > 0)
      return charset;
    else
      return CHARSET_UTF8;
  }

  private static SSLSocketFactory getTrustedFactory()
      throws HttpRequestException {
    if (TRUSTED_FACTORY == null) {
      final TrustManager[] trustAllCerts = new TrustManager[] { new X509TrustManager() {

        public X509Certificate[] getAcceptedIssuers() {
          return new X509Certificate[0];
        }

        public void checkClientTrusted(X509Certificate[] chain, String authType) {
          // Intentionally left blank
        }

        public void checkServerTrusted(X509Certificate[] chain, String authType) {
          // Intentionally left blank
        }
      } };
      try {
        SSLContext context = SSLContext.getInstance("TLS");
        context.init(null, trustAllCerts, new SecureRandom());
        TRUSTED_FACTORY = context.getSocketFactory();
      } catch (GeneralSecurityException e) {
        IOException ioException = new IOException(
            "Security exception configuring SSL context");
        ioException.initCause(e);
        throw new HttpRequestException(ioException);
      }
    }

    return TRUSTED_FACTORY;
  }

  private static HostnameVerifier getTrustedVerifier() {
    if (TRUSTED_VERIFIER == null)
      TRUSTED_VERIFIER = new HostnameVerifier() {

        public boolean verify(String hostname, SSLSession session) {
          return true;
        }
      };

    return TRUSTED_VERIFIER;
  }

  private static StringBuilder addPathSeparator(final String baseUrl,
      final StringBuilder result) {
    // Add trailing slash if the base URL doesn't have any path segments.
    //
    // The following test is checking for the last slash not being part of
    // the protocol to host separator: '://'.
    if (baseUrl.indexOf(':') + 2 == baseUrl.lastIndexOf('/'))
      result.append('/');
    return result;
  }

  private static StringBuilder addParamPrefix(final String baseUrl,
      final StringBuilder result) {
    // Add '?' if missing and add '&' if params already exist in base url
    final int queryStart = baseUrl.indexOf('?');
    final int lastChar = result.length() - 1;
    if (queryStart == -1)
      result.append('?');
    else if (queryStart < lastChar && baseUrl.charAt(lastChar) != '&')
      result.append('&');
    return result;
  }

  /**
   * <p>
   * Encodes and decodes to and from Base64 notation.
   * </p>
   * <p>
   * I am placing this code in the Public Domain. Do with it as you will. This
   * software comes with no guarantees or warranties but with plenty of
   * well-wishing instead! Please visit <a
   * href="链接已屏蔽;>链接已屏蔽;/a> periodically
   * to check for updates or to contribute improvements.
   * </p>
   *
   * @author Robert Harder
   * @author rob@链接已屏蔽
   * @version 2.3.7
   */
  public static class Base64 {

    /** The equals sign (=) as a byte. */
    private final static byte EQUALS_SIGN = (byte) '=';

    /** Preferred encoding. */
    private final static String PREFERRED_ENCODING = "US-ASCII";

    /** The 64 valid Base64 values. */
    private final static byte[] _STANDARD_ALPHABET = { (byte) 'A', (byte) 'B',
        (byte) 'C', (byte) 'D', (byte) 'E', (byte) 'F', (byte) 'G', (byte) 'H',
        (byte) 'I', (byte) 'J', (byte) 'K', (byte) 'L', (byte) 'M', (byte) 'N',
        (byte) 'O', (byte) 'P', (byte) 'Q', (byte) 'R', (byte) 'S', (byte) 'T',
        (byte) 'U', (byte) 'V', (byte) 'W', (byte) 'X', (byte) 'Y', (byte) 'Z',
        (byte) 'a', (byte) 'b', (byte) 'c', (byte) 'd', (byte) 'e', (byte) 'f',
        (byte) 'g', (byte) 'h', (byte) 'i', (byte) 'j', (byte) 'k', (byte) 'l',
        (byte) 'm', (byte) 'n', (byte) 'o', (byte) 'p', (byte) 'q', (byte) 'r',
        (byte) 's', (byte) 't', (byte) 'u', (byte) 'v', (byte) 'w', (byte) 'x',
        (byte) 'y', (byte) 'z', (byte) '0', (byte) '1', (byte) '2', (byte) '3',
        (byte) '4', (byte) '5', (byte) '6', (byte) '7', (byte) '8', (byte) '9',
        (byte) '+', (byte) '/' };

    /** Defeats instantiation. */
    private Base64() {
    }

    /**
     * <p>
     * Encodes up to three bytes of the array <var>source</var> and writes the
     * resulting four Base64 bytes to <var>destination</var>. The source and
     * destination arrays can be manipulated anywhere along their length by
     * specifying <var>srcOffset</var> and <var>destOffset</var>. This method
     * does not check to make sure your arrays are large enough to accomodate
     * <var>srcOffset</var> + 3 for the <var>source</var> array or
     * <var>destOffset</var> + 4 for the <var>destination</var> array. The
     * actual number of significant bytes in your array is given by
     * <var>numSigBytes</var>.
     * </p>
     * <p>
     * This is the lowest level of the encoding methods with all possible
     * parameters.
     * </p>
     *
     * @param source
     *          the array to convert
     * @param srcOffset
     *          the index where conversion begins
     * @param numSigBytes
     *          the number of significant bytes in your array
     * @param destination
     *          the array to hold the conversion
     * @param destOffset
     *          the index where output will be put
     * @return the <var>destination</var> array
     * @since 1.3
     */
    private static byte[] encode3to4(byte[] source, int srcOffset,
        int numSigBytes, byte[] destination, int destOffset) {

      byte[] ALPHABET = _STANDARD_ALPHABET;

      int inBuff = (numSigBytes > 0 ? ((source[srcOffset] << 24) >>> 8) : 0)
          | (numSigBytes > 1 ? ((source[srcOffset + 1] << 24) >>> 16) : 0)
          | (numSigBytes > 2 ? ((source[srcOffset + 2] << 24) >>> 24) : 0);

      switch (numSigBytes) {
      case 3:
        destination[destOffset] = ALPHABET[(inBuff >>> 18)];
        destination[destOffset + 1] = ALPHABET[(inBuff >>> 12) & 0x3f];
        destination[destOffset + 2] = ALPHABET[(inBuff >>> 6) & 0x3f];
        destination[destOffset + 3] = ALPHABET[(inBuff) & 0x3f];
        return destination;

      case 2:
        destination[destOffset] = ALPHABET[(inBuff >>> 18)];
        destination[destOffset + 1] = ALPHABET[(inBuff >>> 12) & 0x3f];
        destination[destOffset + 2] = ALPHABET[(inBuff >>> 6) & 0x3f];
        destination[destOffset + 3] = EQUALS_SIGN;
        return destination;

      case 1:
        destination[destOffset] = ALPHABET[(inBuff >>> 18)];
        destination[destOffset + 1] = ALPHABET[(inBuff >>> 12) & 0x3f];
        destination[destOffset + 2] = EQUALS_SIGN;
        destination[destOffset + 3] = EQUALS_SIGN;
        return destination;

      default:
        return destination;
      }
    }

    /**
     * Encode string as a byte array in Base64 annotation.
     *
     * @param string
     * @return The Base64-encoded data as a string
     */
    public static String encode(String string) {
      byte[] bytes;
      try {
        bytes = string.getBytes(PREFERRED_ENCODING);
      } catch (UnsupportedEncodingException e) {
        bytes = string.getBytes();
      }
      return encodeBytes(bytes);
    }

    /**
     * Encodes a byte array into Base64 notation.
     *
     * @param source
     *          The data to convert
     * @return The Base64-encoded data as a String
     * @throws NullPointerException
     *           if source array is null
     * @throws IllegalArgumentException
     *           if source array, offset, or length are invalid
     * @since 2.0
     */
    public static String encodeBytes(byte[] source) {
      return encodeBytes(source, 0, source.length);
    }

    /**
     * Encodes a byte array into Base64 notation.
     *
     * @param source
     *          The data to convert
     * @param off
     *          Offset in array where conversion should begin
     * @param len
     *          Length of data to convert
     * @return The Base64-encoded data as a String
     * @throws NullPointerException
     *           if source array is null
     * @throws IllegalArgumentException
     *           if source array, offset, or length are invalid
     * @since 2.0
     */
    public static String encodeBytes(byte[] source, int off, int len) {
      byte[] encoded = encodeBytesToBytes(source, off, len);
      try {
        return new String(encoded, PREFERRED_ENCODING);
      } catch (UnsupportedEncodingException uue) {
        return new String(encoded);
      }
    }

    /**
     * Similar to {@link #encodeBytes(byte[], int, int)} but returns a byte
     * array instead of instantiating a String. This is more efficient if you're
     * working with I/O streams and have large data sets to encode.
     *
     *
     * @param source
     *          The data to convert
     * @param off
     *          Offset in array where conversion should begin
     * @param len
     *          Length of data to convert
     * @return The Base64-encoded data as a String if there is an error
     * @throws NullPointerException
     *           if source array is null
     * @throws IllegalArgumentException
     *           if source array, offset, or length are invalid
     * @since 2.3.1
     */
    public static byte[] encodeBytesToBytes(byte[] source, int off, int len) {

      if (source == null)
        throw new NullPointerException("Cannot serialize a null array.");

      if (off < 0)
        throw new IllegalArgumentException("Cannot have negative offset: "
            + off);

      if (len < 0)
        throw new IllegalArgumentException("Cannot have length offset: " + len);

      if (off + len > source.length)
        throw new IllegalArgumentException(
            String
                .format(
                    "Cannot have offset of %d and length of %d with array of length %d",
                    off, len, source.length));

      // Bytes needed for actual encoding
      int encLen = (len / 3) * 4 + (len % 3 > 0 ? 4 : 0);

      byte[] outBuff = new byte[encLen];

      int d = 0;
      int e = 0;
      int len2 = len - 2;
      for (; d < len2; d += 3, e += 4)
        encode3to4(source, d + off, 3, outBuff, e);

      if (d < len) {
        encode3to4(source, d + off, len - d, outBuff, e);
        e += 4;
      }

      if (e <= outBuff.length - 1) {
        byte[] finalOut = new byte[e];
        System.arraycopy(outBuff, 0, finalOut, 0, e);
        return finalOut;
      } else
        return outBuff;
    }
  }

  /**
   * HTTP request exception whose cause is always an {@link IOException}
   */
  public static class HttpRequestException extends RuntimeException {

    private static final long serialVersionUID = -1170466989781746231L;

    /**
     * @param cause
     */
    protected HttpRequestException(final IOException cause) {
      super(cause);
    }

    /**
     * Get {@link IOException} that triggered this request exception
     *
     * @return {@link IOException} cause
     */
    @Override
    public IOException getCause() {
      return (IOException) super.getCause();
    }
  }

  /**
   * Operation that handles executing a callback once complete and handling
   * nested exceptions
   *
   * @param <V>
   */
  protected static abstract class Operation<V> implements Callable<V> {

    /**
     * Run operation
     *
     * @return result
     * @throws HttpRequestException
     * @throws IOException
     */
    protected abstract V run() throws HttpRequestException, IOException;

    /**
     * Operation complete callback
     *
     * @throws IOException
     */
    protected abstract void done() throws IOException;

    public V call() throws HttpRequestException {
      boolean thrown = false;
      try {
        return run();
      } catch (HttpRequestException e) {
        thrown = true;
        throw e;
      } catch (IOException e) {
        thrown = true;
        throw new HttpRequestException(e);
      } finally {
        try {
          done();
        } catch (IOException e) {
          if (!thrown)
            throw new HttpRequestException(e);
        }
      }
    }
  }

  /**
   * Class that ensures a {@link Closeable} gets closed with proper exception
   * handling.
   *
   * @param <V>
   */
  protected static abstract class CloseOperation<V> extends Operation<V> {

    private final Closeable closeable;

    private final boolean ignoreCloseExceptions;

    /**
     * Create closer for operation
     *
     * @param closeable
     * @param ignoreCloseExceptions
     */
    protected CloseOperation(final Closeable closeable,
        final boolean ignoreCloseExceptions) {
      this.closeable = closeable;
      this.ignoreCloseExceptions = ignoreCloseExceptions;
    }

    @Override
    protected void done() throws IOException {
      if (closeable instanceof Flushable)
        ((Flushable) closeable).flush();
      if (ignoreCloseExceptions)
        try {
          closeable.close();
        } catch (IOException e) {
          // Ignored
        }
      else
        closeable.close();
    }
  }

  /**
   * Class that and ensures a {@link Flushable} gets flushed with proper
   * exception handling.
   *
   * @param <V>
   */
  protected static abstract class FlushOperation<V> extends Operation<V> {

    private final Flushable flushable;

    /**
     * Create flush operation
     *
     * @param flushable
     */
    protected FlushOperation(final Flushable flushable) {
      this.flushable = flushable;
    }

    @Override
    protected void done() throws IOException {
      flushable.flush();
    }
  }

  /**
   * Request output stream
   */
  public static class RequestOutputStream extends BufferedOutputStream {

    private final CharsetEncoder encoder;

    /**
     * Create request output stream
     *
     * @param stream
     * @param charset
     * @param bufferSize
     */
    public RequestOutputStream(final OutputStream stream, final String charset,
        final int bufferSize) {
      super(stream, bufferSize);

      encoder = Charset.forName(getValidCharset(charset)).newEncoder();
    }

    /**
     * Write string to stream
     *
     * @param value
     * @return this stream
     * @throws IOException
     */
    public RequestOutputStream write(final String value) throws IOException {
      final ByteBuffer bytes = encoder.encode(CharBuffer.wrap(value));

      super.write(bytes.array(), 0, bytes.limit());

      return this;
    }
  }

  /**
   * Encode the given URL as an ASCII {@link String}
   * <p>
   * This method ensures the path and query segments of the URL are properly
   * encoded such as ' ' characters being encoded to '%20' or any UTF-8
   * characters that are non-ASCII. No encoding of URLs is done by default by
   * the {@link HttpRequest} constructors and so if URL encoding is needed this
   * method should be called before calling the {@link HttpRequest} constructor.
   *
   * @param url
   * @return encoded URL
   * @throws HttpRequestException
   */
  public static String encode(final CharSequence url)
      throws HttpRequestException {
    URL parsed;
    try {
      parsed = new URL(url.toString());
    } catch (IOException e) {
      throw new HttpRequestException(e);
    }

    String host = parsed.getHost();
    int port = parsed.getPort();
    if (port != -1)
      host = host + ':' + Integer.toString(port);

    try {
      return new URI(parsed.getProtocol(), host, parsed.getPath(),
          parsed.getQuery(), null).toASCIIString();
    } catch (URISyntaxException e) {
      IOException io = new IOException("Parsing URI failed");
      io.initCause(e);
      throw new HttpRequestException(io);
    }
  }

  /**
   * Append given map as query parameters to the base URL
   * <p>
   * Each map entry's key will be a parameter name and the value's
   * {@link Object#toString()} will be the parameter value.
   *
   * @param url
   * @param params
   * @return URL with appended query params
   */
  public static String append(final CharSequence url, final Map<?, ?> params) {
    final String baseUrl = url.toString();
    if (params == null || params.isEmpty())
      return baseUrl;

    final StringBuilder result = new StringBuilder(baseUrl);

    addPathSeparator(baseUrl, result);
    addParamPrefix(baseUrl, result);

    Entry<?, ?> entry;
    Object value;
    Iterator<?> iterator = params.entrySet().iterator();
    entry = (Entry<?, ?>) iterator.next();
    result.append(entry.getKey().toString());
    result.append('=');
    value = entry.getValue();
    if (value != null)
      result.append(value);

    while (iterator.hasNext()) {
      result.append('&');
      entry = (Entry<?, ?>) iterator.next();
      result.append(entry.getKey().toString());
      result.append('=');
      value = entry.getValue();
      if (value != null)
        result.append(value);
    }

    return result.toString();
  }

  /**
   * Append given name/value pairs as query parameters to the base URL
   * <p>
   * The params argument is interpreted as a sequence of name/value pairs so the
   * given number of params must be divisible by 2.
   *
   * @param url
   * @param params
   *          name/value pairs
   * @return URL with appended query params
   */
  public static String append(final CharSequence url, final Object... params) {
    final String baseUrl = url.toString();
    if (params == null || params.length == 0)
      return baseUrl;

    if (params.length % 2 != 0)
      throw new IllegalArgumentException(
          "Must specify an even number of parameter names/values");

    final StringBuilder result = new StringBuilder(baseUrl);

    addPathSeparator(baseUrl, result);
    addParamPrefix(baseUrl, result);

    Object value;
    result.append(params[0]);
    result.append('=');
    value = params[1];
    if (value != null)
      result.append(value);

    for (int i = 2; i < params.length; i += 2) {
      result.append('&');
      result.append(params[i]);
      result.append('=');
      value = params[i + 1];
      if (value != null)
        result.append(value);
    }

    return result.toString();
  }

  /**
   * Start a 'GET' request to the given URL
   *
   * @param url
   * @return request
   * @throws HttpRequestException
   */
  public static HttpRequest get(final CharSequence url)
      throws HttpRequestException {
    return new HttpRequest(url, METHOD_GET);
  }

  /**
   * Start a 'GET' request to the given URL
   *
   * @param url
   * @return request
   * @throws HttpRequestException
   */
  public static HttpRequest get(final URL url) throws HttpRequestException {
    return new HttpRequest(url, METHOD_GET);
  }

  /**
   * Start a 'GET' request to the given URL along with the query params
   *
   * @param baseUrl
   * @param params
   *          The query parameters to include as part of the baseUrl
   * @param encode
   *          true to encode the full URL
   *
   * @see #append(CharSequence, Map)
   * @see #encode(CharSequence)
   *
   * @return request
   */
  public static HttpRequest get(final CharSequence baseUrl,
      final Map<?, ?> params, final boolean encode) {
    String url = append(baseUrl, params);
    return get(encode ? encode(url) : url);
  }

  /**
   * Start a 'GET' request to the given URL along with the query params
   *
   * @param baseUrl
   * @param encode
   *          true to encode the full URL
   * @param params
   *          the name/value query parameter pairs to include as part of the
   *          baseUrl
   *
   * @see #append(CharSequence, String...)
   * @see #encode(CharSequence)
   *
   * @return request
   */
  public static HttpRequest get(final CharSequence baseUrl,
      final boolean encode, final Object... params) {
    String url = append(baseUrl, params);
    return get(encode ? encode(url) : url);
  }

  /**
   * Start a 'POST' request to the given URL
   *
   * @param url
   * @return request
   * @throws HttpRequestException
   */
  public static HttpRequest post(final CharSequence url)
      throws HttpRequestException {
    return new HttpRequest(url, METHOD_POST);
  }

  /**
   * Start a 'POST' request to the given URL
   *
   * @param url
   * @return request
   * @throws HttpRequestException
   */
  public static HttpRequest post(final URL url) throws HttpRequestException {
    return new HttpRequest(url, METHOD_POST);
  }

  /**
   * Start a 'POST' request to the given URL along with the query params
   *
   * @param baseUrl
   * @param params
   *          the query parameters to include as part of the baseUrl
   * @param encode
   *          true to encode the full URL
   *
   * @see #append(CharSequence, Map)
   * @see #encode(CharSequence)
   *
   * @return request
   */
  public static HttpRequest post(final CharSequence baseUrl,
      final Map<?, ?> params, final boolean encode) {
    String url = append(baseUrl, params);
    return post(encode ? encode(url) : url);
  }

  /**
   * Start a 'POST' request to the given URL along with the query params
   *
   * @param baseUrl
   * @param encode
   *          true to encode the full URL
   * @param params
   *          the name/value query parameter pairs to include as part of the
   *          baseUrl
   *
   * @see #append(CharSequence, String...)
   * @see #encode(CharSequence)
   *
   * @return request
   */
  public static HttpRequest post(final CharSequence baseUrl,
      final boolean encode, final Object... params) {
    String url = append(baseUrl, params);
    return post(encode ? encode(url) : url);
  }

  /**
   * Start a 'PUT' request to the given URL
   *
   * @param url
   * @return request
   * @throws HttpRequestException
   */
  public static HttpRequest put(final CharSequence url)
      throws HttpRequestException {
    return new HttpRequest(url, METHOD_PUT);
  }

  /**
   * Start a 'PUT' request to the given URL
   *
   * @param url
   * @return request
   * @throws HttpRequestException
   */
  public static HttpRequest put(final URL url) throws HttpRequestException {
    return new HttpRequest(url, METHOD_PUT);
  }

  /**
   * Start a 'PUT' request to the given URL along with the query params
   *
   * @param baseUrl
   * @param params
   *          the query parameters to include as part of the baseUrl
   * @param encode
   *          true to encode the full URL
   *
   * @see #append(CharSequence, Map)
   * @see #encode(CharSequence)
   *
   * @return request
   */
  public static HttpRequest put(final CharSequence baseUrl,
      final Map<?, ?> params, final boolean encode) {
    String url = append(baseUrl, params);
    return put(encode ? encode(url) : url);
  }

  /**
   * Start a 'PUT' request to the given URL along with the query params
   *
   * @param baseUrl
   * @param encode
   *          true to encode the full URL
   * @param params
   *          the name/value query parameter pairs to include as part of the
   *          baseUrl
   *
   * @see #append(CharSequence, String...)
   * @see #encode(CharSequence)
   *
   * @return request
   */
  public static HttpRequest put(final CharSequence baseUrl,
      final boolean encode, final Object... params) {
    String url = append(baseUrl, params);
    return put(encode ? encode(url) : url);
  }

  /**
   * Start a 'DELETE' request to the given URL
   *
   * @param url
   * @return request
   * @throws HttpRequestException
   */
  public static HttpRequest delete(final CharSequence url)
      throws HttpRequestException {
    return new HttpRequest(url, METHOD_DELETE);
  }

  /**
   * Start a 'DELETE' request to the given URL
   *
   * @param url
   * @return request
   * @throws HttpRequestException
   */
  public static HttpRequest delete(final URL url) throws HttpRequestException {
    return new HttpRequest(url, METHOD_DELETE);
  }

  /**
   * Start a 'DELETE' request to the given URL along with the query params
   *
   * @param baseUrl
   * @param params
   *          The query parameters to include as part of the baseUrl
   * @param encode
   *          true to encode the full URL
   *
   * @see #append(CharSequence, Map)
   * @see #encode(CharSequence)
   *
   * @return request
   */
  public static HttpRequest delete(final CharSequence baseUrl,
      final Map<?, ?> params, final boolean encode) {
    String url = append(baseUrl, params);
    return delete(encode ? encode(url) : url);
  }

  /**
   * Start a 'DELETE' request to the given URL along with the query params
   *
   * @param baseUrl
   * @param encode
   *          true to encode the full URL
   * @param params
   *          the name/value query parameter pairs to include as part of the
   *          baseUrl
   *
   * @see #append(CharSequence, String...)
   * @see #encode(CharSequence)
   *
   * @return request
   */
  public static HttpRequest delete(final CharSequence baseUrl,
      final boolean encode, final Object... params) {
    String url = append(baseUrl, params);
    return delete(encode ? encode(url) : url);
  }

  /**
   * Start a 'HEAD' request to the given URL
   *
   * @param url
   * @return request
   * @throws HttpRequestException
   */
  public static HttpRequest head(final CharSequence url)
      throws HttpRequestException {
    return new HttpRequest(url, METHOD_HEAD);
  }

  /**
   * Start a 'HEAD' request to the given URL
   *
   * @param url
   * @return request
   * @throws HttpRequestException
   */
  public static HttpRequest head(final URL url) throws HttpRequestException {
    return new HttpRequest(url, METHOD_HEAD);
  }

  /**
   * Start a 'HEAD' request to the given URL along with the query params
   *
   * @param baseUrl
   * @param params
   *          The query parameters to include as part of the baseUrl
   * @param encode
   *          true to encode the full URL
   *
   * @see #append(CharSequence, Map)
   * @see #encode(CharSequence)
   *
   * @return request
   */
  public static HttpRequest head(final CharSequence baseUrl,
      final Map<?, ?> params, final boolean encode) {
    String url = append(baseUrl, params);
    return head(encode ? encode(url) : url);
  }

  /**
   * Start a 'GET' request to the given URL along with the query params
   *
   * @param baseUrl
   * @param encode
   *          true to encode the full URL
   * @param params
   *          the name/value query parameter pairs to include as part of the
   *          baseUrl
   *
   * @see #append(CharSequence, String...)
   * @see #encode(CharSequence)
   *
   * @return request
   */
  public static HttpRequest head(final CharSequence baseUrl,
      final boolean encode, final Object... params) {
    String url = append(baseUrl, params);
    return head(encode ? encode(url) : url);
  }

  /**
   * Start an 'OPTIONS' request to the given URL
   *
   * @param url
   * @return request
   * @throws HttpRequestException
   */
  public static HttpRequest options(final CharSequence url)
      throws HttpRequestException {
    return new HttpRequest(url, METHOD_OPTIONS);
  }

  /**
   * Start an 'OPTIONS' request to the given URL
   *
   * @param url
   * @return request
   * @throws HttpRequestException
   */
  public static HttpRequest options(final URL url) throws HttpRequestException {
    return new HttpRequest(url, METHOD_OPTIONS);
  }

  /**
   * Start a 'TRACE' request to the given URL
   *
   * @param url
   * @return request
   * @throws HttpRequestException
   */
  public static HttpRequest trace(final CharSequence url)
      throws HttpRequestException {
    return new HttpRequest(url, METHOD_TRACE);
  }

  /**
   * Start a 'TRACE' request to the given URL
   *
   * @param url
   * @return request
   * @throws HttpRequestException
   */
  public static HttpRequest trace(final URL url) throws HttpRequestException {
    return new HttpRequest(url, METHOD_TRACE);
  }

  /**
   * Set the 'http.keepAlive' property to the given value.
   * <p>
   * This setting will apply to requests.
   *
   * @param keepAlive
   */
  public static void keepAlive(final boolean keepAlive) {
    setProperty("http.keepAlive", Boolean.toString(keepAlive));
  }

  /**
   * Set the 'http.proxyHost' & 'https.proxyHost' properties to the given host
   * value.
   * <p>
   * This setting will apply to requests.
   *
   * @param host
   */
  public static void proxyHost(final String host) {
    setProperty("http.proxyHost", host);
    setProperty("https.proxyHost", host);
  }

  /**
   * Set the 'http.proxyPort' & 'https.proxyPort' properties to the given port
   * number.
   * <p>
   * This setting will apply to requests.
   *
   * @param port
   */
  public static void proxyPort(final int port) {
    final String portValue = Integer.toString(port);
    setProperty("http.proxyPort", portValue);
    setProperty("https.proxyPort", portValue);
  }

  /**
   * Set the 'http.nonProxyHosts' property to the given host values.
   * <p>
   * Hosts will be separated by a '|' character.
   * <p>
   * This setting will apply to requests.
   *
   * @param hosts
   */
  public static void nonProxyHosts(final String... hosts) {
    if (hosts != null && hosts.length > 0) {
      StringBuilder separated = new StringBuilder();
      int last = hosts.length - 1;
      for (int i = 0; i < last; i++)
        separated.append(hosts[i]).append('|');
      separated.append(hosts[last]);
      setProperty("http.nonProxyHosts", separated.toString());
    } else
      setProperty("http.nonProxyHosts", null);
  }

  /**
   * Set property to given value.
   * <p>
   * Specifying a null value will cause the property to be cleared
   *
   * @param name
   * @param value
   * @return previous value
   */
  private static final String setProperty(final String name, final String value) {
    final PrivilegedAction<String> action;
    if (value != null)
      action = new PrivilegedAction<String>() {

        public String run() {
          return System.setProperty(name, value);
        }
      };
    else
      action = new PrivilegedAction<String>() {

        public String run() {
          return System.clearProperty(name);
        }
      };
    return AccessController.doPrivileged(action);
  }

  private final HttpURLConnection connection;

  private RequestOutputStream output;

  private boolean multipart;

  private boolean form;

  private boolean ignoreCloseExceptions = true;

  private boolean uncompress = false;

  private int bufferSize = 8192;

  /**
   * Create HTTP connection wrapper
   *
   * @param url
   * @param method
   * @throws HttpRequestException
   */
  public HttpRequest(final CharSequence url, final String method)
      throws HttpRequestException {
    try {
      connection = (HttpURLConnection) new URL(url.toString()).openConnection();
      connection.setRequestMethod(method);
    } catch (IOException e) {
      throw new HttpRequestException(e);
    }
  }

  /**
   * Create HTTP connection wrapper
   *
   * @param url
   * @param method
   * @throws HttpRequestException
   */
  public HttpRequest(final URL url, final String method)
      throws HttpRequestException {
    try {
      connection = (HttpURLConnection) url.openConnection();
      connection.setRequestMethod(method);
    } catch (IOException e) {
      throw new HttpRequestException(e);
    }
  }

  @Override
  public String toString() {
    return method() + ' ' + url();
  }

  /**
   * Get underlying connection
   *
   * @return connection
   */
  public HttpURLConnection getConnection() {
    return connection;
  }

  /**
   * Set whether or not to ignore exceptions that occur from calling
   * {@link Closeable#close()}
   * <p>
   * The default value of this setting is <code>true</code>
   *
   * @param ignore
   * @return this request
   */
  public HttpRequest ignoreCloseExceptions(final boolean ignore) {
    ignoreCloseExceptions = ignore;
    return this;
  }

  /**
   * Get whether or not exceptions thrown by {@link Closeable#close()} are
   * ignored
   *
   * @return true if ignoring, false if throwing
   */
  public boolean ignoreCloseExceptions() {
    return ignoreCloseExceptions;
  }

  /**
   * Get the status code of the response
   *
   * @return the response code
   * @throws HttpRequestException
   */
  public int code() throws HttpRequestException {
    try {
      closeOutput();
      return connection.getResponseCode();
    } catch (IOException e) {
      throw new HttpRequestException(e);
    }
  }

  /**
   * Set the value of the given {@link AtomicInteger} to the status code of the
   * response
   *
   * @param output
   * @return this request
   * @throws HttpRequestException
   */
  public HttpRequest code(final AtomicInteger output)
      throws HttpRequestException {
    output.set(code());
    return this;
  }

  /**
   * Is the response code a 200 OK?
   *
   * @return true if 200, false otherwise
   * @throws HttpRequestException
   */
  public boolean ok() throws HttpRequestException {
    return HTTP_OK == code();
  }

  /**
   * Is the response code a 201 Created?
   *
   * @return true if 201, false otherwise
   * @throws HttpRequestException
   */
  public boolean created() throws HttpRequestException {
    return HTTP_CREATED == code();
  }

  /**
   * Is the response code a 500 Internal Server Error?
   *
   * @return true if 500, false otherwise
   * @throws HttpRequestException
   */
  public boolean serverError() throws HttpRequestException {
    return HTTP_INTERNAL_ERROR == code();
  }

  /**
   * Is the response code a 400 Bad Request?
   *
   * @return true if 400, false otherwise
   * @throws HttpRequestException
   */
  public boolean badRequest() throws HttpRequestException {
    return HTTP_BAD_REQUEST == code();
  }

  /**
   * Is the response code a 404 Not Found?
   *
   * @return true if 404, false otherwise
   * @throws HttpRequestException
   */
  public boolean notFound() throws HttpRequestException {
    return HTTP_NOT_FOUND == code();
  }

  /**
   * Is the response code a 304 Not Modified?
   *
   * @return true if 304, false otherwise
   * @throws HttpRequestException
   */
  public boolean notModified() throws HttpRequestException {
    return HTTP_NOT_MODIFIED == code();
  }

  /**
   * Get status message of the response
   *
   * @return message
   * @throws HttpRequestException
   */
  public String message() throws HttpRequestException {
    try {
      closeOutput();
      return connection.getResponseMessage();
    } catch (IOException e) {
      throw new HttpRequestException(e);
    }
  }

  /**
   * Disconnect the connection
   *
   * @return this request
   */
  public HttpRequest disconnect() {
    connection.disconnect();
    return this;
  }

  /**
   * Set chunked streaming mode to the given size
   *
   * @param size
   * @return this request
   */
  public HttpRequest chunk(final int size) {
    connection.setChunkedStreamingMode(size);
    return this;
  }

  /**
   * Set the size used when buffering and copying between streams
   * <p>
   * This size is also used for send and receive buffers created for both char
   * and byte arrays
   * <p>
   * The default buffer size is 8,192 bytes
   *
   * @param size
   * @return this request
   */
  public HttpRequest bufferSize(final int size) {
    if (size < 1)
      throw new IllegalArgumentException("Size must be greater than zero");
    bufferSize = size;
    return this;
  }

  /**
   * Get the configured buffer size
   * <p>
   * The default buffer size is 8,192 bytes
   *
   * @return buffer size
   */
  public int bufferSize() {
    return bufferSize;
  }

  /**
   * Set whether or not the response body should be automatically uncompressed
   * when read from.
   * <p>
   * This will only affect requests that have the 'Content-Encoding' response
   * header set to 'gzip'.
   * <p>
   * This causes all receive methods to use a {@link GZIPInputStream} when
   * applicable so that higher level streams and readers can read the data
   * uncompressed.
   * <p>
   * Setting this option does not cause any request headers to be set
   * automatically so {@link #acceptGzipEncoding()} should be used in
   * conjunction with this setting to tell the server to gzip the response.
   *
   * @param uncompress
   * @return this request
   */
  public HttpRequest uncompress(final boolean uncompress) {
    this.uncompress = uncompress;
    return this;
  }

  /**
   * Create byte array output stream
   *
   * @return stream
   */
  protected ByteArrayOutputStream byteStream() {
    final int size = contentLength();
    if (size > 0)
      return new ByteArrayOutputStream(size);
    else
      return new ByteArrayOutputStream();
  }

  /**
   * Get response as {@link String} in given character set
   * <p>
   * This will fall back to using the UTF-8 character set if the given charset
   * is null
   *
   * @param charset
   * @return string
   * @throws HttpRequestException
   */
  public String body(final String charset) throws HttpRequestException {
    final ByteArrayOutputStream output = byteStream();
    try {
      copy(buffer(), output);
      return output.toString(getValidCharset(charset));
    } catch (IOException e) {
      throw new HttpRequestException(e);
    }
  }

  /**
   * Get response as {@link String} using character set returned from
   * {@link #charset()}
   *
   * @return string
   * @throws HttpRequestException
   */
  public String body() throws HttpRequestException {
    return body(charset());
  }

  /**
   * Is the response body empty?
   *
   * @return true if the Content-Length response header is 0, false otherwise
   * @throws HttpRequestException
   */
  public boolean isBodyEmpty() throws HttpRequestException {
    return contentLength() == 0;
  }

  /**
   * Get response as byte array
   *
   * @return byte array
   * @throws HttpRequestException
   */
  public byte[] bytes() throws HttpRequestException {
    final ByteArrayOutputStream output = byteStream();
    try {
      copy(buffer(), output);
    } catch (IOException e) {
      throw new HttpRequestException(e);
    }
    return output.toByteArray();
  }

  /**
   * Get response in a buffered stream
   *
   * @see #bufferSize(int)
   * @return stream
   * @throws HttpRequestException
   */
  public BufferedInputStream buffer() throws HttpRequestException {
    return new BufferedInputStream(stream(), bufferSize);
  }

  /**
   * Get stream to response body
   *
   * @return stream
   * @throws HttpRequestException
   */
  public InputStream stream() throws HttpRequestException {
    InputStream stream;
    if (code() < HTTP_BAD_REQUEST)
      try {
        stream = connection.getInputStream();
      } catch (IOException e) {
        throw new HttpRequestException(e);
      }
    else {
      stream = connection.getErrorStream();
      if (stream == null)
        try {
          stream = connection.getInputStream();
        } catch (IOException e) {
          throw new HttpRequestException(e);
        }
    }

    if (!uncompress || !ENCODING_GZIP.equals(contentEncoding()))
      return stream;
    else
      try {
        return new GZIPInputStream(stream);
      } catch (IOException e) {
        throw new HttpRequestException(e);
      }
  }

  /**
   * Get reader to response body using given character set.
   * <p>
   * This will fall back to using the UTF-8 character set if the given charset
   * is null
   *
   * @param charset
   * @return reader
   * @throws HttpRequestException
   */
  public InputStreamReader reader(final String charset)
      throws HttpRequestException {
    try {
      return new InputStreamReader(stream(), getValidCharset(charset));
    } catch (UnsupportedEncodingException e) {
      throw new HttpRequestException(e);
    }
  }

  /**
   * Get reader to response body using the character set returned from
   * {@link #charset()}
   *
   * @return reader
   * @throws HttpRequestException
   */
  public InputStreamReader reader() throws HttpRequestException {
    return reader(charset());
  }

  /**
   * Get buffered reader to response body using the given character set r and
   * the configured buffer size
   *
   *
   * @see #bufferSize(int)
   * @param charset
   * @return reader
   * @throws HttpRequestException
   */
  public BufferedReader bufferedReader(final String charset)
      throws HttpRequestException {
    return new BufferedReader(reader(charset), bufferSize);
  }

  /**
   * Get buffered reader to response body using the character set returned from
   * {@link #charset()} and the configured buffer size
   *
   * @see #bufferSize(int)
   * @return reader
   * @throws HttpRequestException
   */
  public BufferedReader bufferedReader() throws HttpRequestException {
    return bufferedReader(charset());
  }

  /**
   * Stream response body to file
   *
   * @param file
   * @return this request
   * @throws HttpRequestException
   */
  public HttpRequest receive(final File file) throws HttpRequestException {
    final OutputStream output;
    try {
      output = new BufferedOutputStream(new FileOutputStream(file), bufferSize);
    } catch (FileNotFoundException e) {
      throw new HttpRequestException(e);
    }
    return new CloseOperation<HttpRequest>(output, ignoreCloseExceptions) {

      @Override
      protected HttpRequest run() throws HttpRequestException, IOException {
        return receive(output);
      }
    }.call();
  }

  /**
   * Stream response to given output stream
   *
   * @param output
   * @return this request
   * @throws HttpRequestException
   */
  public HttpRequest receive(final OutputStream output)
      throws HttpRequestException {
    try {
      return copy(buffer(), output);
    } catch (IOException e) {
      throw new HttpRequestException(e);
    }
  }

  /**
   * Stream response to given print stream
   *
   * @param output
   * @return this request
   * @throws HttpRequestException
   */
  public HttpRequest receive(final PrintStream output)
      throws HttpRequestException {
    return receive((OutputStream) output);
  }

  /**
   * Receive response into the given appendable
   *
   * @param appendable
   * @return this request
   * @throws HttpRequestException
   */
  public HttpRequest receive(final Appendable appendable)
      throws HttpRequestException {
    final BufferedReader reader = bufferedReader();
    return new CloseOperation<HttpRequest>(reader, ignoreCloseExceptions) {

      @Override
      public HttpRequest run() throws IOException {
        final CharBuffer buffer = CharBuffer.allocate(bufferSize);
        int read;
        while ((read = reader.read(buffer)) != -1) {
          buffer.rewind();
          appendable.append(buffer, 0, read);
          buffer.rewind();
        }
        return HttpRequest.this;
      }
    }.call();
  }

  /**
   * Receive response into the given writer
   *
   * @param writer
   * @return this request
   * @throws HttpRequestException
   */
  public HttpRequest receive(final Writer writer) throws HttpRequestException {
    final BufferedReader reader = bufferedReader();
    return new CloseOperation<HttpRequest>(reader, ignoreCloseExceptions) {

      @Override
      public HttpRequest run() throws IOException {
        return copy(reader, writer);
      }
    }.call();
  }

  /**
   * Set read timeout on connection to given value
   *
   * @param timeout
   * @return this request
   */
  public HttpRequest readTimeout(final int timeout) {
    connection.setReadTimeout(timeout);
    return this;
  }

  /**
   * Set connect timeout on connection to given value
   *
   * @param timeout
   * @return this request
   */
  public HttpRequest connectTimeout(final int timeout) {
    connection.setConnectTimeout(timeout);
    return this;
  }

  /**
   * Set header name to given value
   *
   * @param name
   * @param value
   * @return this request
   */
  public HttpRequest header(final String name, final String value) {
    connection.setRequestProperty(name, value);
    return this;
  }

  /**
   * Set header name to given value
   *
   * @param name
   * @param value
   * @return this request
   */
  public HttpRequest header(final String name, final Number value) {
    return header(name, value != null ? value.toString() : null);
  }

  /**
   * Set all headers found in given map where the keys are the header names and
   * the values are the header values
   *
   * @param headers
   * @return this request
   */
  public HttpRequest headers(final Map<String, String> headers) {
    if (!headers.isEmpty())
      for (Entry<String, String> header : headers.entrySet())
        header(header);
    return this;
  }

  /**
   * Set header to have given entry's key as the name and value as the value
   *
   * @param header
   * @return this request
   */
  public HttpRequest header(final Entry<String, String> header) {
    return header(header.getKey(), header.getValue());
  }

  /**
   * Get a response header
   *
   * @param name
   * @return response header
   * @throws HttpRequestException
   */
  public String header(final String name) throws HttpRequestException {
    closeOutputQuietly();
    return connection.getHeaderField(name);
  }

  /**
   * Get all the response headers
   *
   * @return map of response header names to their value(s)
   * @throws HttpRequestException
   */
  public Map<String, List<String>> headers() throws HttpRequestException {
    closeOutputQuietly();
    return connection.getHeaderFields();
  }

  /**
   * Get a date header from the response falling back to returning -1 if the
   * header is missing or parsing fails
   *
   * @param name
   * @return date, -1 on failures
   * @throws HttpRequestException
   */
  public long dateHeader(final String name) throws HttpRequestException {
    return dateHeader(name, -1L);
  }

  /**
   * Get a date header from the response falling back to returning the given
   * default value if the header is missing or parsing fails
   *
   * @param name
   * @param defaultValue
   * @return date, default value on failures
   * @throws HttpRequestException
   */
  public long dateHeader(final String name, final long defaultValue)
      throws HttpRequestException {
    closeOutputQuietly();
    return connection.getHeaderFieldDate(name, defaultValue);
  }

  /**
   * Get an integer header from the response falling back to returning -1 if the
   * header is missing or parsing fails
   *
   * @param name
   * @return header value as an integer, -1 when missing or parsing fails
   * @throws HttpRequestException
   */
  public int intHeader(final String name) throws HttpRequestException {
    return intHeader(name, -1);
  }

  /**
   * Get an integer header value from the response falling back to the given
   * default value if the header is missing or if parsing fails
   *
   * @param name
   * @param defaultValue
   * @return header value as an integer, default value when missing or parsing
   *         fails
   * @throws HttpRequestException
   */
  public int intHeader(final String name, final int defaultValue)
      throws HttpRequestException {
    closeOutputQuietly();
    return connection.getHeaderFieldInt(name, defaultValue);
  }

  /**
   * Get all values of the given header from the response
   *
   * @param name
   * @return non-null but possibly empty array of {@link String} header values
   */
  public String[] headers(final String name) {
    final Map<String, List<String>> headers = headers();
    if (headers == null || headers.isEmpty())
      return EMPTY_STRINGS;

    final List<String> values = headers.get(name);
    if (values != null && !values.isEmpty())
      return values.toArray(new String[values.size()]);
    else
      return EMPTY_STRINGS;
  }

  /**
   * Get parameter with given name from header value in response
   *
   * @param headerName
   * @param paramName
   * @return parameter value or null if missing
   */
  public String parameter(final String headerName, final String paramName) {
    return getParam(header(headerName), paramName);
  }

  /**
   * Get all parameters from header value in response
   * <p>
   * This will be all key=value pairs after the first ';' that are separated by
   * a ';'
   *
   * @param headerName
   * @return non-null but possibly empty map of parameter headers
   */
  public Map<String, String> parameters(final String headerName) {
    return getParams(header(headerName));
  }

  /**
   * Get parameter values from header value
   *
   * @param header
   * @return parameter value or null if none
   */
  protected Map<String, String> getParams(final String header) {
    if (header == null || header.length() == 0)
      return Collections.emptyMap();

    final int headerLength = header.length();
    int start = header.indexOf(';') + 1;
    if (start == 0 || start == headerLength)
      return Collections.emptyMap();

    int end = header.indexOf(';', start);
    if (end == -1)
      end = headerLength;

    Map<String, String> params = new LinkedHashMap<String, String>();
    while (start < end) {
      int nameEnd = header.indexOf('=', start);
      if (nameEnd != -1 && nameEnd < end) {
        String name = header.substring(start, nameEnd).trim();
        if (name.length() > 0) {
          String value = header.substring(nameEnd + 1, end).trim();
          int length = value.length();
          if (length != 0)
            if (length > 2 && '"' == value.charAt(0)
                && '"' == value.charAt(length - 1))
              params.put(name, value.substring(1, length - 1));
            else
              params.put(name, value);
        }
      }

      start = end + 1;
      end = header.indexOf(';', start);
      if (end == -1)
        end = headerLength;
    }

    return params;
  }

  /**
   * Get parameter value from header value
   *
   * @param value
   * @param paramName
   * @return parameter value or null if none
   */
  protected String getParam(final String value, final String paramName) {
    if (value == null || value.length() == 0)
      return null;

    final int length = value.length();
    int start = value.indexOf(';') + 1;
    if (start == 0 || start == length)
      return null;

    int end = value.indexOf(';', start);
    if (end == -1)
      end = length;

    while (start < end) {
      int nameEnd = value.indexOf('=', start);
      if (nameEnd != -1 && nameEnd < end
          && paramName.equals(value.substring(start, nameEnd).trim())) {
        String paramValue = value.substring(nameEnd + 1, end).trim();
        int valueLength = paramValue.length();
        if (valueLength != 0)
          if (valueLength > 2 && '"' == paramValue.charAt(0)
              && '"' == paramValue.charAt(valueLength - 1))
            return paramValue.substring(1, valueLength - 1);
          else
            return paramValue;
      }

      start = end + 1;
      end = value.indexOf(';', start);
      if (end == -1)
        end = length;
    }

    return null;
  }

  /**
   * Get 'charset' parameter from 'Content-Type' response header
   *
   * @return charset or null if none
   */
  public String charset() {
    return parameter(HEADER_CONTENT_TYPE, PARAM_CHARSET);
  }

  /**
   * Set the 'User-Agent' header to given value
   *
   * @param value
   * @return this request
   */
  public HttpRequest userAgent(final String value) {
    return header(HEADER_USER_AGENT, value);
  }

  /**
   * Set value of {@link HttpURLConnection#setUseCaches(boolean)}
   *
   * @param useCaches
   * @return this request
   */
  public HttpRequest useCaches(final boolean useCaches) {
    connection.setUseCaches(useCaches);
    return this;
  }

  /**
   * Set the 'Accept-Encoding' header to given value
   *
   * @param value
   * @return this request
   */
  public HttpRequest acceptEncoding(final String value) {
    return header(HEADER_ACCEPT_ENCODING, value);
  }

  /**
   * Set the 'Accept-Encoding' header to 'gzip'
   *
   * @see #uncompress(boolean)
   * @return this request
   */
  public HttpRequest acceptGzipEncoding() {
    return acceptEncoding(ENCODING_GZIP);
  }

  /**
   * Set the 'Accept-Charset' header to given value
   *
   * @param value
   * @return this request
   */
  public HttpRequest acceptCharset(final String value) {
    return header(HEADER_ACCEPT_CHARSET, value);
  }

  /**
   * Get the 'Content-Encoding' header from the response
   *
   * @return this request
   */
  public String contentEncoding() {
    return header(HEADER_CONTENT_ENCODING);
  }

  /**
   * Get the 'Server' header from the response
   *
   * @return server
   */
  public String server() {
    return header(HEADER_SERVER);
  }

  /**
   * Get the 'Date' header from the response
   *
   * @return date value, -1 on failures
   */
  public long date() {
    return dateHeader(HEADER_DATE);
  }

  /**
   * Get the 'Cache-Control' header from the response
   *
   * @return cache control
   */
  public String cacheControl() {
    return header(HEADER_CACHE_CONTROL);
  }

  /**
   * Get the 'ETag' header from the response
   *
   * @return entity tag
   */
  public String eTag() {
    return header(HEADER_ETAG);
  }

  /**
   * Get the 'Expires' header from the response
   *
   * @return expires value, -1 on failures
   */
  public long expires() {
    return dateHeader(HEADER_EXPIRES);
  }

  /**
   * Get the 'Last-Modified' header from the response
   *
   * @return last modified value, -1 on failures
   */
  public long lastModified() {
    return dateHeader(HEADER_LAST_MODIFIED);
  }

  /**
   * Get the 'Location' header from the response
   *
   * @return location
   */
  public String location() {
    return header(HEADER_LOCATION);
  }

  /**
   * Set the 'Authorization' header to given value
   *
   * @param value
   * @return this request
   */
  public HttpRequest authorization(final String value) {
    return header(HEADER_AUTHORIZATION, value);
  }

  /**
   * Set the 'Authorization' header to given values in Basic authentication
   * format
   *
   * @param name
   * @param password
   * @return this request
   */
  public HttpRequest basic(final String name, final String password) {
    return authorization("Basic " + Base64.encode(name + ':' + password));
  }

  /**
   * Set the 'If-Modified-Since' request header to the given value
   *
   * @param value
   * @return this request
   */
  public HttpRequest ifModifiedSince(final long value) {
    connection.setIfModifiedSince(value);
    return this;
  }

  /**
   * Set the 'If-None-Match' request header to the given value
   *
   * @param value
   * @return this request
   */
  public HttpRequest ifNoneMatch(final String value) {
    return header(HEADER_IF_NONE_MATCH, value);
  }

  /**
   * Set the 'Content-Type' request header to the given value
   *
   * @param value
   * @return this request
   */
  public HttpRequest contentType(final String value) {
    return contentType(value, null);
  }

  /**
   * Set the 'Content-Type' request header to the given value and charset
   *
   * @param value
   * @param charset
   * @return this request
   */
  public HttpRequest contentType(final String value, final String charset) {
    if (charset != null && charset.length() > 0) {
      final String separator = "; " + PARAM_CHARSET + '=';
      return header(HEADER_CONTENT_TYPE, value + separator + charset);
    } else
      return header(HEADER_CONTENT_TYPE, value);
  }

  /**
   * Get the 'Content-Type' header from the response
   *
   * @return response header value
   */
  public String contentType() {
    return header(HEADER_CONTENT_TYPE);
  }

  /**
   * Get the 'Content-Length' header from the response
   *
   * @return response header value
   */
  public int contentLength() {
    return intHeader(HEADER_CONTENT_LENGTH);
  }

  /**
   * Set the 'Content-Length' request header to the given value
   *
   * @param value
   * @return this request
   */
  public HttpRequest contentLength(final String value) {
    return contentLength(Integer.parseInt(value));
  }

  /**
   * Set the 'Content-Length' request header to the given value
   *
   * @param value
   * @return this request
   */
  public HttpRequest contentLength(final int value) {
    connection.setFixedLengthStreamingMode(value);
    return this;
  }

  /**
   * Set the 'Accept' header to given value
   *
   * @param value
   * @return this request
   */
  public HttpRequest accept(final String value) {
    return header(HEADER_ACCEPT, value);
  }

  /**
   * Set the 'Accept' header to 'application/json'
   *
   * @return this request
   */
  public HttpRequest acceptJson() {
    return accept(CONTENT_TYPE_JSON);
  }

  /**
   * Copy from input stream to output stream
   *
   * @param input
   * @param output
   * @return this request
   * @throws IOException
   */
  protected HttpRequest copy(final InputStream input, final OutputStream output)
      throws IOException {
    return new CloseOperation<HttpRequest>(input, ignoreCloseExceptions) {

      @Override
      public HttpRequest run() throws IOException {
        final byte[] buffer = new byte[bufferSize];
        int read;
        while ((read = input.read(buffer)) != -1)
          output.write(buffer, 0, read);
        return HttpRequest.this;
      }
    }.call();
  }

  /**
   * Copy from reader to writer
   *
   * @param input
   * @param output
   * @return this request
   * @throws IOException
   */
  protected HttpRequest copy(final Reader input, final Writer output)
      throws IOException {
    return new CloseOperation<HttpRequest>(input, ignoreCloseExceptions) {

      @Override
      public HttpRequest run() throws IOException {
        final char[] buffer = new char[bufferSize];
        int read;
        while ((read = input.read(buffer)) != -1)
          output.write(buffer, 0, read);
        return HttpRequest.this;
      }
    }.call();
  }

  /**
   * Close output stream
   *
   * @return this request
   * @throws HttpRequestException
   * @throws IOException
   */
  protected HttpRequest closeOutput() throws IOException {
    if (output == null)
      return this;
    if (multipart)
      output.write(CRLF + "--" + BOUNDARY + "--" + CRLF);
    if (ignoreCloseExceptions)
      try {
        output.close();
      } catch (IOException ignored) {
        // Ignored
      }
    else
      output.close();
    output = null;
    return this;
  }

  /**
   * Call {@link #closeOutput()} and re-throw a caught {@link IOException}s as
   * an {@link HttpRequestException}
   *
   * @return this request
   * @throws HttpRequestException
   */
  protected HttpRequest closeOutputQuietly() throws HttpRequestException {
    try {
      return closeOutput();
    } catch (IOException e) {
      throw new HttpRequestException(e);
    }
  }

  /**
   * Open output stream
   *
   * @return this request
   * @throws IOException
   */
  protected HttpRequest openOutput() throws IOException {
    if (output != null)
      return this;
    connection.setDoOutput(true);
    final String charset = getParam(
        connection.getRequestProperty(HEADER_CONTENT_TYPE), PARAM_CHARSET);
    output = new RequestOutputStream(connection.getOutputStream(), charset,
        bufferSize);
    return this;
  }

  /**
   * Start part of a multipart
   *
   * @return this request
   * @throws IOException
   */
  protected HttpRequest startPart() throws IOException {
    if (!multipart) {
      multipart = true;
      contentType(CONTENT_TYPE_MULTIPART).openOutput();
      output.write("--" + BOUNDARY + CRLF);
    } else
      output.write(CRLF + "--" + BOUNDARY + CRLF);
    return this;
  }

  /**
   * Write part header
   *
   * @param name
   * @param filename
   * @return this request
   * @throws IOException
   */
  protected HttpRequest writePartHeader(final String name, final String filename)
      throws IOException {
    return writePartHeader(name, filename, null);
  }

  /**
   * Write part header
   *
   * @param name
   * @param filename
   * @param contentType
   * @return this request
   * @throws IOException
   */
  protected HttpRequest writePartHeader(final String name,
      final String filename, final String contentType) throws IOException {
    final StringBuilder partBuffer = new StringBuilder();
    partBuffer.append("form-data; name=\"").append(name);
    if (filename != null)
      partBuffer.append("\"; filename=\"").append(filename);
    partBuffer.append('"');
    partHeader("Content-Disposition", partBuffer.toString());
    if (contentType != null)
      partHeader(HEADER_CONTENT_TYPE, contentType);
    return send(CRLF);
  }

  /**
   * Write part of a multipart request to the request body
   *
   * @param name
   * @param part
   * @return this request
   */
  public HttpRequest part(final String name, final String part) {
    return part(name, null, part);
  }

  /**
   * Write part of a multipart request to the request body
   *
   * @param name
   * @param filename
   * @param part
   * @return this request
   * @throws HttpRequestException
   */
  public HttpRequest part(final String name, final String filename,
      final String part) throws HttpRequestException {
    return part(name, filename, null, part);
  }

  /**
   * Write part of a multipart request to the request body
   *
   * @param name
   * @param filename
   * @param contentType
   *          value of the Content-Type part header
   * @param part
   * @return this request
   * @throws HttpRequestException
   */
  public HttpRequest part(final String name, final String filename,
      final String contentType, final String part) throws HttpRequestException {
    try {
      startPart();
      writePartHeader(name, filename, contentType);
      output.write(part);
    } catch (IOException e) {
      throw new HttpRequestException(e);
    }
    return this;
  }

  /**
   * Write part of a multipart request to the request body
   *
   * @param name
   * @param part
   * @return this request
   * @throws HttpRequestException
   */
  public HttpRequest part(final String name, final Number part)
      throws HttpRequestException {
    return part(name, null, part);
  }

  /**
   * Write part of a multipart request to the request body
   *
   * @param name
   * @param filename
   * @param part
   * @return this request
   * @throws HttpRequestException
   */
  public HttpRequest part(final String name, final String filename,
      final Number part) throws HttpRequestException {
    return part(name, filename, part != null ? part.toString() : null);
  }

  /**
   * Write part of a multipart request to the request body
   *
   * @param name
   * @param part
   * @return this request
   * @throws HttpRequestException
   */
  public HttpRequest part(final String name, final File part)
      throws HttpRequestException {
    return part(name, null, part);
  }

  /**
   * Write part of a multipart request to the request body
   *
   * @param name
   * @param filename
   * @param part
   * @return this request
   * @throws HttpRequestException
   */
  public HttpRequest part(final String name, final String filename,
      final File part) throws HttpRequestException {
    return part(name, filename, null, part);
  }

  /**
   * Write part of a multipart request to the request body
   *
   * @param name
   * @param filename
   * @param contentType
   *          value of the Content-Type part header
   * @param part
   * @return this request
   * @throws HttpRequestException
   */
  public HttpRequest part(final String name, final String filename,
      final String contentType, final File part) throws HttpRequestException {
    final InputStream stream;
    try {
      stream = new BufferedInputStream(new FileInputStream(part));
    } catch (IOException e) {
      throw new HttpRequestException(e);
    }
    return part(name, filename, contentType, stream);
  }

  /**
   * Write part of a multipart request to the request body
   *
   * @param name
   * @param part
   * @return this request
   * @throws HttpRequestException
   */
  public HttpRequest part(final String name, final InputStream part)
      throws HttpRequestException {
    return part(name, null, null, part);
  }

  /**
   * Write part of a multipart request to the request body
   *
   * @param name
   * @param filename
   * @param contentType
   *          value of the Content-Type part header
   * @param part
   * @return this request
   * @throws HttpRequestException
   */
  public HttpRequest part(final String name, final String filename,
      final String contentType, final InputStream part)
      throws HttpRequestException {
    try {
      startPart();
      writePartHeader(name, filename, contentType);
      copy(part, output);
    } catch (IOException e) {
      throw new HttpRequestException(e);
    }
    return this;
  }

  /**
   * Write a multipart header to the response body
   *
   * @param name
   * @param value
   * @return this request
   * @throws HttpRequestException
   */
  public HttpRequest partHeader(final String name, final String value)
      throws HttpRequestException {
    return send(name).send(": ").send(value).send(CRLF);
  }

  /**
   * Write contents of file to request body
   *
   * @param input
   * @return this request
   * @throws HttpRequestException
   */
  public HttpRequest send(final File input) throws HttpRequestException {
    final InputStream stream;
    try {
      stream = new BufferedInputStream(new FileInputStream(input));
    } catch (FileNotFoundException e) {
      throw new HttpRequestException(e);
    }
    return send(stream);
  }

  /**
   * Write byte array to request body
   *
   * @param input
   * @return this request
   * @throws HttpRequestException
   */
  public HttpRequest send(final byte[] input) throws HttpRequestException {
    return send(new ByteArrayInputStream(input));
  }

  /**
   * Write stream to request body
   * <p>
   * The given stream will be closed once sending completes
   *
   * @param input
   * @return this request
   * @throws HttpRequestException
   */
  public HttpRequest send(final InputStream input) throws HttpRequestException {
    try {
      openOutput();
      copy(input, output);
    } catch (IOException e) {
      throw new HttpRequestException(e);
    }
    return this;
  }

  /**
   * Write reader to request body
   * <p>
   * The given reader will be closed once sending completes
   *
   * @param input
   * @return this request
   * @throws HttpRequestException
   */
  public HttpRequest send(final Reader input) throws HttpRequestException {
    try {
      openOutput();
    } catch (IOException e) {
      throw new HttpRequestException(e);
    }
    final Writer writer = new OutputStreamWriter(output,
        output.encoder.charset());
    return new FlushOperation<HttpRequest>(writer) {

      @Override
      protected HttpRequest run() throws IOException {
        return copy(input, writer);
      }
    }.call();
  }

  /**
   * Write char sequence to request body
   * <p>
   * The charset configured via {@link #contentType(String)} will be used and
   * UTF-8 will be used if it is unset.
   *
   * @param value
   * @return this request
   * @throws HttpRequestException
   */
  public HttpRequest send(final CharSequence value) throws HttpRequestException {
    try {
      openOutput();
      output.write(value.toString());
    } catch (IOException e) {
      throw new HttpRequestException(e);
    }
    return this;
  }

  /**
   * Create writer to request output stream
   *
   * @return writer
   * @throws HttpRequestException
   */
  public OutputStreamWriter writer() throws HttpRequestException {
    try {
      openOutput();
      return new OutputStreamWriter(output, output.encoder.charset());
    } catch (IOException e) {
      throw new HttpRequestException(e);
    }
  }

  /**
   * Write the values in the map as form data to the request body
   * <p>
   * The pairs specified will be URL-encoded in UTF-8 and sent with the
   * 'application/x-www-form-urlencoded' content-type
   *
   * @param values
   * @return this request
   * @throws HttpRequestException
   */
  public HttpRequest form(final Map<?, ?> values) throws HttpRequestException {
    return form(values, CHARSET_UTF8);
  }

  /**
   * Write the key and value in the entry as form data to the request body
   * <p>
   * The pair specified will be URL-encoded in UTF-8 and sent with the
   * 'application/x-www-form-urlencoded' content-type
   *
   * @param entry
   * @return this request
   * @throws HttpRequestException
   */
  public HttpRequest form(final Entry<?, ?> entry) throws HttpRequestException {
    return form(entry, CHARSET_UTF8);
  }

  /**
   * Write the key and value in the entry as form data to the request body
   * <p>
   * The pair specified will be URL-encoded and sent with the
   * 'application/x-www-form-urlencoded' content-type
   *
   * @param entry
   * @param charset
   * @return this request
   * @throws HttpRequestException
   */
  public HttpRequest form(final Entry<?, ?> entry, final String charset)
      throws HttpRequestException {
    return form(entry.getKey(), entry.getValue(), charset);
  }

  /**
   * Write the name/value pair as form data to the request body
   * <p>
   * The pair specified will be URL-encoded in UTF-8 and sent with the
   * 'application/x-www-form-urlencoded' content-type
   *
   * @param name
   * @param value
   * @return this request
   * @throws HttpRequestException
   */
  public HttpRequest form(final Object name, final Object value)
      throws HttpRequestException {
    return form(name, value, CHARSET_UTF8);
  }

  /**
   * Write the name/value pair as form data to the request body
   * <p>
   * The values specified will be URL-encoded and sent with the
   * 'application/x-www-form-urlencoded' content-type
   *
   * @param name
   * @param value
   * @param charset
   * @return this request
   * @throws HttpRequestException
   */
  public HttpRequest form(final Object name, final Object value, String charset)
      throws HttpRequestException {
    final boolean first = !form;
    if (first) {
      contentType(CONTENT_TYPE_FORM, charset);
      form = true;
    }
    charset = getValidCharset(charset);
    try {
      openOutput();
      if (!first)
        output.write('&');
      output.write(URLEncoder.encode(name.toString(), charset));
      output.write('=');
      if (value != null)
        output.write(URLEncoder.encode(value.toString(), charset));
    } catch (IOException e) {
      throw new HttpRequestException(e);
    }
    return this;
  }

  /**
   * Write the values in the map as encoded form data to the request body
   *
   * @param values
   * @param charset
   * @return this request
   * @throws HttpRequestException
   */
  public HttpRequest form(final Map<?, ?> values, final String charset)
      throws HttpRequestException {
    if (!values.isEmpty())
      for (Entry<?, ?> entry : values.entrySet())
        form(entry, charset);
    return this;
  }

  /**
   * Configure HTTPS connection to trust all certificates
   * <p>
   * This method does nothing if the current request is not a HTTPS request
   *
   * @return this request
   * @throws HttpRequestException
   */
  public HttpRequest trustAllCerts() throws HttpRequestException {
    if (connection instanceof HttpsURLConnection)
      ((HttpsURLConnection) connection)
          .setSSLSocketFactory(getTrustedFactory());
    return this;
  }

  /**
   * Configure HTTPS connection to trust all hosts using a custom
   * {@link HostnameVerifier} that always returns <code>true</code> for each
   * host verified
   * <p>
   * This method does nothing if the current request is not a HTTPS request
   *
   * @return this request
   */
  public HttpRequest trustAllHosts() {
    if (connection instanceof HttpsURLConnection)
      ((HttpsURLConnection) connection)
          .setHostnameVerifier(getTrustedVerifier());
    return this;
  }

  /**
   * Get the {@link URL} of this request's connection
   *
   * @return request URL
   */
  public URL url() {
    return connection.getURL();
  }

  /**
   * Get the HTTP method of this request
   *
   * @return method
   */
  public String method() {
    return connection.getRequestMethod();
  }
}